Orapuh Journal https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj <p>Orapuh&nbsp;Journal <em>(Orap J) - ISSN: <strong>2644-3740</strong></em> is an Open Access, internationally peer-reviewed online Journal of Oral and Public Health. The Journal exists to deliver simple, quality, and best-in-class, peer-reviewed oral and public health knowledge to oral and public health care professionals, educators, consumers, and the global community.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong></p> <p>Orapuh Journal aims to catalyze aggravated access to superior information and research and encourage the development of new researchers/authors from the underserved biases of the oral and public health disciplines.</p> <p><strong>Scope</strong></p> <p>Orap J prioritises original research, balanced, comprehensive, or critical review articles, good, evidence-based information, and interactive clinical and related content from the oral and public health disciplines.</p> <p><strong>Open Access Information</strong></p> <p>All articles in Orap J are open-access articles distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 International License.</p> <p>Click <a href="https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/about"><strong>here</strong></a> to read more about the Journal. Find out <a href="http://orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/why-choose">why <em>Orap J</em> is your quick access to being</a>!</p> <p><strong><a href="https://orapuh.org/2023/11/01/the-vital-role-of-communicating-dental-and-public-health-research-findings/">Click here</a></strong>&nbsp;to read an article about the vital role of communicating oral and public health research findings to the scientific community.</p> <p><a href="http://orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/editorial-policies">Editorial Policies</a>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <a href="https://orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/about/editorialTeam">Editorial Team</a>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <a href="http://orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/about/submissions">Author Guidelines</a></p> en-US <p>Authors of articles published in <em>Orap J</em> are the copyright holders of their articles. When they accept our terms of use, they grant any third party the right to use, reproduce or disseminate their article freely without fiscal or registration restrictions.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> [email protected] (Prof. V. E. Adamu) [email protected] (Editor-in-Chief) Wed, 20 Mar 2024 23:54:57 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Molecular Docking Simulation of the antisickling activity of Naringenin-7-O-glucoside and Kaempferol-3-O-glucoside from Uapaca heudelotii Baill. (Phyllanthaceae) and their ADMET profile https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/e1111 <p><strong>Introduction</strong><br>Sickle cell disease is a genetic disease that affects the hemoglobin in red blood cells. The symptoms of this public health problem include anemia, painful crises, and an increased risk of infections. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the medicinal plant species Uappaca heudelotii, which has been reported to have antisickling activity in vitro constitutes a source of natural antisickling agents for potential clinical applications in sickle cell disease management. <br><strong>Purpose</strong><br>This study aimed to investigate the potential of two secondary metabolites (Naringenin-7-O-glucoside and Kaempferol-3-O-glucoside) from Uappaca heudelotii in treating sickle cell disease by targeting specific receptors (3NFY, 3WCU, 5VTB, and 7EJ1) associated with the condition.<br><strong>Methods</strong><br>Naringenin-7-O-glucoside and Kaempferol-3-O-glucoside from U. heudelotii were evaluated for their interaction with receptors associated with sickle cell disease namely 3NFY, 3WCU, 5VTB, and 7EJ1 using molecular docking simulation. Discovery Studio 2021 (Biovia) software package was used to prepare the receptor, to edit the binding site, and to visualize the results of docking. SWISS ADME and PKCSM bioinformatics tools were utilized for assessing physicochemical parameters and pharmacokinetic properties, respectively.<br><strong>Results</strong><br>Naringenin-7-O-glucoside and Kaempferol-3-O-glucoside exhibited significant interactions with the receptors; Both compounds formed hydrogen bonds with the receptors, indicating strong binding affinity; Naringenin-7-O-glucoside formed 4, 1, 6, and 3 hydrogen bonds with receptors 3NFY, 3WCU, 5VTB, and 7EJ1 respectively; Kaempferol-3-O-glucoside formed 5, 5, 8, and 2 hydrogen bonds with the same receptors respectively, indicating a higher number of interactions.<br><strong>Conclusions</strong> <br>The study confirmed the potential of Naringenin-7-O-glucoside and Kaempferol-3-O-glucoside from U. heudelotii as effective agents against sickle cell disease. These compounds demonstrate promising antisickling properties by inhibiting hemoglobin polymerization and the Rapoport-Lübering shunt, rehydrating erythrocytes, and increasing fetal hemoglobin levels.</p> Grégoire Elumba Ekutsu, Emmanuel Mulongo Kitete, Colette Ashande Masengo, Benjamin Z. Gbolo, Jeff Bekomo Iteku, Bienvenu K. Mavakala, Pius Tshimankinda Mpiana, Virima Mudogo, Jean-Paul Koto-Te-Nyiwa Ngbolua Copyright (c) 2024 Grégoire Elumba Ekutsu, Emmanuel Mulongo Kitete, Colette Ashande Masengo, Benjamin Z. Gbolo, Jeff Bekomo Iteku, Bienvenu K. Mavakala, Pius Tshimankinda Mpiana, Virima Mudogo, Jean-Paul Koto-Te-Nyiwa Ngbolua https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/e1111 Wed, 20 Mar 2024 22:32:05 +0000 X-ray fluorescence characterization of some medicinal plants traditionally used as aphrodisiac in the treatment of male sterility in Kenge City, Democratic Republic of the Congo https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/e1112 <p><strong>Introduction</strong><br>Male infertility refers to the inability of a man to impregnate a woman. It is a public health issue among men of reproductive age. Certain minerals, such as zinc, selenium, iron, and magnesium, are essential to produce healthy sperm and for maintaining male reproductive function. Medicinal plants containing these minerals can improve sperm quality and increase the chances of conception in men suffering from infertility.<br><strong>Purpose</strong><br>The aim of this research was to analyze the elemental composition of four medicinal plants traditionally used for their aphrodisiac properties, with a particular emphasis on their application in the treatment of male sterility. <br>Methods<br>The mineral content of selected plants was assessed by X-ray fluorescence using Energy Dispersive XRF Spectrometer (EDXRF).<br><strong>Results</strong><br>The findings reveal significant concentrations of various minerals in the studied medicinal plants, providing crucial information about their elemental composition. Thirty mineral elements were identified, including six macro elements (Na, Mg, P, S, K, Ca), 15 micro elements (Al, Si, Mn, Ni, Cu, Mo, Pb, Ti, V, Cr, Hg, Br, Rb, Sr, and Cd), three important elements in the diet of spermatozoa (Fe, Zn, Mg), and seven non-relevant elements. These results can have direct implications for the medicinal properties of the plants, especially in the context of treating male sterility.<br><strong>Conclusions</strong><br>Among the selected medicinal plants, Mondia whitei is rich in minerals as evidenced by principal component analysis (PCA) and could potentially contribute to improving overall health and indirectly promoting male fertility. the</p> Frederick Ndombe Mulwele, Koto-Te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, B Yang Da Musa Masens, Théophile Fundu Mbemba, Pius Tshimankinda Mpiana Copyright (c) 2024 Frederick Ndombe Mulwele, Koto-Te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, B Yang Da Musa Masens, Théophile Fundu Mbemba, Pius Tshimankinda Mpiana https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/e1112 Wed, 20 Mar 2024 22:04:04 +0000 The Factors associated with the practice of self-medication in Barumbu Health Zone, Democratic Republic of the Congo https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/e1113 <p><strong>Introduction</strong> <br>The issue of resorting to self-medication is currently common and no geographical area is spared from it in the world. Millions of people prefer to treat minor ailments rather than follow formal treatment.<br><strong>Purpose</strong><br>This study aimed to determine the factors associated with self-medication in the Barumbu Health Zone.<br><strong>Methods</strong><br>This is a descriptive correlational and cross-sectional study carried out in the city of Kinshasa, and more precisely in the Barumbu Health Zone. The sample was 266 heads of households. The questionnaire survey method was used with the structured interview technique to collect the data.<br><strong>Results</strong><br>After analysis with SPSS version 20 software, we arrived at the results according to which self-medication is practiced by 76.6%. Level of education (secondary) (X2 8.084, p=0.044) and monthly income ≤ 100$ (2 20.445., p=0.000) are associated with the practice of self-medication. Insufficient knowledge about the consequences of self-medication (X2 8.872, p= 0. 003), insufficient membership of mutual health insurance companies (X2 16,677, p=0.000), and the high cost of care (X2 30,304, p=0.000), are factors associated with the practice of self-medication in the commune of Barumbu, Kinshasa.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong><br>The revision of health care fees in all health care structures to allow everyone to access health care, the mobilisation to join mutual health insurance companies, and the sensitisation to the consequences of self-medication will allow to reduce this practice significantly.</p> Augustin KADIATA BUKASA, Augustin Tshitadi Makangu, Pascal Atuba Mamenepi, Marcel Tshidibi Bukasa, Sébastien Kazumba Mamba, Félicien Tshimungu Kandolo Copyright (c) 2024 Augustin KADIATA BUKASA, Augustin Tshitadi Makangu, Pascal Atuba Mamenepi, Marcel Tshidibi Bukasa, Sébastien Kazumba Mamba, Félicien Tshimungu Kandolo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/e1113 Wed, 20 Mar 2024 23:51:18 +0000 Enhancing oral and public health scholarship at Orapuh: Unveiling the Orapuh vocabulary https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/244 <p>The Orapuh Vocabulary represents a cornerstone of communication and understanding within the Orapuh community. As an international, independent organization incorporated in the Republic of The Gambia as a charity, Orapuh is committed to promoting astute scholarship, professional proficiency, and open science in the field. This conceptual paper introduces and elucidates the Orapuh Vocabulary, providing clear definitions and pronunciation guides for key terms that encapsulate the ethos, mission, and activities of Orapuh. By presenting this comprehensive lexicon, the paper aims to facilitate communication, foster collaboration, and advance knowledge in oral and public health scholarship among professionals of Orapuh extraction</p> V. E. Adamu, Ndidiamaka Ijeoma Eneojo Copyright (c) 2024 V. E. Adamu, Ndidiamaka Ijeoma Eneojo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/244 Wed, 20 Mar 2024 14:54:12 +0000 Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A risk factor for infertility https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/e1115 <p>Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a frequent hormonal disorder in women of reproductive age, which is characterized by irregular and rare menstrual&nbsp;cycles or even high levels of androgens. In women with PCOS, the possibility of various complications increases, including infertility. The main purpose of the review was to provide more information on the relationship between PCOS and infertility and highlight the most important evidence-based recommendations on diagnosis and efficient treatment for PCOS. This review includes the most recent literature sources such as clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses (from 2019 to 2022) searched in Web of Science and PubMed databases using terms such as ‘Polycystic Ovary Syndrome’ and ‘infertility’. Articles that did not primarily address PCOS and infertility or those that were just in the pilot trial stage were not included in the&nbsp;review. Based on the literature, infertility is one of the main complications of PCOS, which has been reported in 40% of these cases. According to several evidence-based studies the diagnosis of infertility in PCOS women can be achieved according to the Rotterdam criteria based on the level of anti-Mullerian Hormones, FSH, LH, prolactin, estradiol, and testosterone. Options for management or control of infertility disorders in women with PCOS include stimulation of ovulation, intrauterine insemination as well as cycles of assisted reproductive techniques. On the other hand, the most effective treatments for women with PCOS include the use of metformin, letrozole, and minimally invasive laparoscopic techniques. Nevertheless, because the etiology of PCOS is unknown in most patients, therapy is not always successful. Future studies that concentrate on lifestyle factors and any other external variables that may favorably impact the attainment of suitable therapy are required to provide PCOS patients with appropriate and effective treatment.</p> Zanita Ismajli Copyright (c) 2024 Zanita Ismajli https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/e1115 Thu, 28 Mar 2024 21:06:20 +0000 Evaluation of mineral content of plants used in the management of sickle cell disease https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/e1116 <p><strong>Introduction</strong><br>Sickle cell disease is a hereditary condition primarily identified in tropical areas. It is marked by significant anemia, vaso-occlusive seizures, and a heightened vulnerability to both viral and bacterial infections. Additionally, sickle cell disease is distinguished by&nbsp;the depletion of mineral elements during crises.<br><strong>Purpose</strong><br>The purpose of this investigation was to identify the mineral composition of ten plants, namely Alchornea cordifolia, Alternanthera bettzickiana, Annona senegalensis, Cyttaranthus congolensis, Dissotis brazzae, Justicia secunda, Harungana madagascariensis, Hura crepitans, Hypoxis angustifolia, and Vigna unguiculata, traditionally utilized by practitioners in the management of sickle cell disease.<br><strong>Methods</strong><br>In this study, the biological material consists of the leaves, bark, and seeds of ten plant species. These plants were collected in Kwilu, and the mineral composition was assessed&nbsp;through fluorescence spectrometric analysis. The detection and quantification of the mineral elements were done by X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method with an XEPOS fluorescence spectrometer. The analysis of the results was carried out through Excel. R Studio and SPSS software packages were used for the statistical&nbsp;analyses.<br><strong>Results</strong><br>The study identified a total of twenty-three mineral elements in each of these plants, including Potassium (K), Phosphorus (P), Calcium (Ca), Sodium (Na), Magnesium (Mg), Sulphur (S), Chlorine (Cl), as well as trace elements like Aluminum (Al), Silicon (Si), Vanadium (V), Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mn), Iron (Fe), Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Selenium (Se), Bromine (Br), Molybdenum (Mo), Tin (Sn), Iodine (I), Barium (Ba), and Lead (Pb). Notably, Iron, Zinc, Selenium, Copper, Calcium, Magnesium, and Manganese were found to be mineral elements associated with sickle cell disease. Potassium and Calcium exhibited higher concentrations, while Lead, Tin, Bromine, Copper, and Nickel were present in trace amounts. <br><strong>Conclusion</strong><br>The results obtained confirm that these plants contain some mineral elements such as Fe, Zn, Mg, and Se that are useful for sickle-cell patients.</p> Jules M. Kitadi, Clément Liyongo Inkoto, Joseph Kwilu, Emmanuel M. Lengbiye, Damien S. T. Tshibangu, Dorothée D. Tshilanda, Jean-Paul Koto-Te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Blaise M. Mbala, Brigitte Schmitz, Pius Tshimankinda Mpiana Copyright (c) 2024 Jules M. Kitadi, Clément Liyongo Inkoto, Joseph Kwilu, Emmanuel M. Lengbiye, Damien S. T. Tshibangu, Dorothée D. Tshilanda, Jean-Paul Koto-Te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Blaise M. Mbala, Brigitte Schmitz, Pius Tshimankinda Mpiana https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/e1116 Sat, 30 Mar 2024 14:41:06 +0000 Micrographic profiling and bio-optimisation of the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Solanum lycopersicum L. (1753) by combining it with Curcuma longa L. (1753) extract https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/e1117 <p><strong>Introduction</strong></p> <p>Oxidative stress and antibiotic resistance are currently a major public health problem; hence, the search for new sources of anti-infective agents is essential.</p> <p><strong>Purpose</strong></p> <p>The aim of the present study was to determine the micrographic profile of <em>Solanum lycopersicum</em> leaves and <em>Curcuma longa</em> rhizomes; and to evaluate the bio-optimisation of the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of <em>Solanum lycopersicum</em> by association with <em>Curcuma longa</em> extract.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong></p> <p>The powder was observed using the Steimetz reagent, while antibacterial activity was assessed using the microdilution method in a liquid medium, and antioxidant activity was assessed using the free radical scavenging test with DPPHº and ABTS.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>The study showed that the powders of these two species have characteristic elements such as starch grains, fragments of spiral vessels, etc. The antioxidant power of the combination of extracts was greater than that recorded with <em>Solanum lycopersicum</em> alone, at the same concentrations, by the two tests used. The antibacterial activity revealed that the synergy of extracts from these two plants was effective against most of the strains tested, even at very low doses in some cases.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>These results provide a basis for validating combinations of different plant extracts in the pharmacopoeia of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.</p> Odette Kabena Ngandu, Yolie Yasombe Koizo, Jean-Jacques D. Amogu, Francis F. Mubigalo, Jonathan M. Mukania, Franklin M. Nzembo, Olivier K. Mpungi, Lionel S. Asamboa, Jeff B. Iteku Copyright (c) 2024 Odette Kabena Ngandu, Yolie Yasombe Koizo, Olivier K. Mpungi, Lionel S. Asamboa, Jean-Jacques D. Amogu, Jeff B. Iteku, Francis F. Mubigalo, Jonathan M. Mukania, Franklin M. Nzembo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/e1117 Wed, 03 Apr 2024 16:04:39 +0000 The impact of diabetes on the urinary system and the need for preventive strategies, early detection, and management of urological complications https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/e1118 <p class="s10"><strong>Introduction</strong><br>Diabetes mellitus affects many organ systems, including the urinary system. Because of this, it is a worldwide public health issue. This study is about urological problems that can happen with diabetes. The main goals of management are prevention, early detection, and treatment.<br><strong>Purpose</strong><br>This study aimed to investigate the impact of diabetes on the urinary system.<br><strong>Methods</strong><br>125 diabetics who attended Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India between 2019 and 2021 participated in this retrospective study. We looked at their demographic information and the frequency of urological problems and the associated preventive strategies. Chi-square testing was used for statistical analyses.<br><strong>Results</strong><br>The most commonly occurring urological problems among the study participants were urinary tract infections (20%), diabetic nephropathy (32%), neurogenic bladder failure (12%), or impotence (24%). We also observed that the introduction of different preventative strategies into the management of the referent participants stemmed the progression of the problem in varying degrees. <br><strong>Conclusion</strong><br>The study has identified commonly diagnosed urological problems among the participants and demonstrated the importance of early detection and preventative strategies to improve patient outcomes and treatment.</p> N. Anil Kumar, Shashi Kumar, C. Konda Reddy, N. Anirudh Suseel Copyright (c) 2024 N. Anil Kumar, Shashi Kumar, C. Konda Reddy, N. Anirudh Suseel https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/e1118 Tue, 09 Apr 2024 20:40:43 +0000 Chronic Kidney Disease and Urological Implications: The interplay between Chronic Kidney Disease and urological conditions https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/e1119 <p class="s12"><strong>Introduction</strong></p> <p class="s12">People of all ages and cultures are affected by the diabetes crisis. The disease primarily affects the kidneys, heart, and nervous system and is categorised as type 1 or 2. Many urological problems can happen because diabetes and the urinary system work together in a complicated way, which is a cause for worry.</p> <p class="s12"><strong>Purpose</strong></p> <p class="s12">The purpose of this research was to study Chronic Kidney Disease and their urological implications among the participants.</p> <p class="s12"><strong>Methods</strong></p> <p class="s12">From November 2019 to November 2021, a retrospective analysis of 150 participants selected through the medical health records of Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India, was carried out. We examined demographic and time-series trends, as well as the prevalence of chronic renal disease and urological diseases. We used descriptive statistics to understand the data to find trends and connections.</p> <p class="s12"><strong>Results</strong></p> <p class="s12">The150 participants surveyed were 60% male and 40% female and the mean age of the participants was 55.2 years (SD: 8.7). The study indicated that the overall prevalence of CKD and urological problems among the participants was 30%. The prevalence of CKD among the participants was 20% (stage 1), 30% (stage 2), and 25% (stage 3). The prevalence of urological conditions was 15% (kidney stones), 20% (UTIs), and 10% (bladder dysfunction). Urological conditions tended to worsen with decline in kidney function.</p> <p class="s12"><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p class="s12">The study underscores the significance of interdisciplinary cooperation in delivering effective patient care because of the complex relationship between urological disorders and CKD. Further investigation is necessary to enhance appro</p> Shashi Kumar, N. Anil Kumar, C. Konda Reddy, Harsha Vardhana Varma Mudunuri Copyright (c) 2024 Shashi Kumar, N. Anil Kumar, C. Konda Reddy, Harsha Vardhana Varma Mudunuri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/e1119 Sat, 13 Apr 2024 16:43:01 +0000 Challenges of antimicrobial resistance in sub-Saharan Africa: The past, present, and future perspectives https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/e1120 <p>Infectious diseases continue to be a major global problem in public health, accounting for millions of fatalities annually, despite a century of frequently successful preventative and control efforts. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and the appearance of novel diseases are both consequences of the rapid pace at which society, technology, and microbes are changing. It is projected that AMR was responsible for the deaths of 700,000 people around the world in 2014, making it one of the most significant threats to the world's public health. This essay points to the challenges of antimicrobial resistance in sub-Saharan Africa and its prospects. An online search was done on relevant published studies in PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and ResearchGate from the period 1992 to 2023, of which 61 were adapted for this article. The sub-Saharan Africa region, despite being the worst hit when it comes to infectious disease and, by proxy, antimicrobial resistance, can win the war in the long run.&nbsp;</p> O. B. Elijah, E. K. Umukoro, E. G. Moke, V. J. O. Igben, O. Arighwrode, E. E. Onakpoya, U. Dennis-Eboh, B. E. Ekuerhare Copyright (c) 2024 O. B. Elijah, E. K. Umukoro, E. G. Moke, V. J. O. Igben, O. Arighwrode, E. E. Onakpoya, U. Dennis-Eboh, B. E. Ekuerhare https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/e1120 Sat, 11 May 2024 18:17:47 +0000