Orapuh Journal https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj <p>Orapuh&nbsp;Journal <em>(Orap J) - ISSN: <strong>2644-3740</strong></em> is an Open Access, internationally peer-reviewed online Journal of Oral and Public Health. The Journal exists to deliver simple, quality, and best-in-class, peer-reviewed oral and public health knowledge to oral and public health care professionals, educators, consumers, and the global community.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong></p> <p>Orapuh Journal aims to catalyze aggravated access to superior information and research and encourage the development of new researchers/authors from the underserved biases of the oral and public health disciplines.</p> <p><strong>Scope</strong></p> <p>Orap J prioritises original research, balanced, comprehensive, or critical review articles, good, evidence-based information, and interactive clinical and related content from the oral and public health disciplines.</p> <p><strong>Open Access Information</strong></p> <p>All articles in Orap J are open-access articles distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 International License.</p> <p>Click <a href="https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/about"><strong>here</strong></a> to read more about the Journal. Find out <a href="http://orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/why-choose">why <em>Orap J</em> is your quick access to being</a>!</p> <p><a href="http://orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/editorial-policies">Editorial Policies</a>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <a href="https://orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/about/editorialTeam">Editorial Team</a>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <a href="http://orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/about/submissions">Author Guidelines</a></p> en-US <p>Authors of articles published in <em>Orap J</em> are the copyright holders of their articles. When they accept our terms of use, they grant any third party the right to use, reproduce or disseminate their article freely without fiscal or registration restrictions.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> [email protected] (Dr. V. E. ADAMU) [email protected] (Editor-in-Chief) Sat, 04 Mar 2023 21:35:53 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Socio-demographic factors and cultural beliefs in early child weaning among mothers of Onigbongbo community, Lagos State, Nigeria https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/e1001 <p><strong>Introduction</strong><br>Weaning is the introduction of supplementary food into a child’s diet after the first six months of life. Early introduction of the food and incorrect weaning practices are commonly found among mothers around the world. <br><strong>Purpose</strong><br>This research work was designed to assess the socio-demographic and cultural factors influencing maternal decision on early child weaning. <br><strong>Material and methods</strong> <br>The study was of a cross-sectional survey research design. Data was collected with the aid of a questionnaire that was designed to elicit the desired responses. 394 mothers selected from the 39,385 women (using the Yaro Yemane formula) that attended the Immunisation Plus Day (IPD) of the Primary Health Care (PHC) Centre located at the Onigbongbo community in Lagos State, Nigeria were given the questionnaires to fill out but only 251 returned them because the research was conducted at the height of the COVID-19 pandemic (63.71% return rate). Data got from this exercise were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 25, at a 95% confidence level and 0.05 marginal error.<br><strong>Result</strong> <br>Results indicated that there was a positive relationship between early child weaning and maternal age (r .040 and p-value of .525), educational level (r .093 and p-value of .142), and income level (r .160 and p-value of .011). On the other hand, there was a negative relationship between early child weaning and the belief that breast milk is insufficient for the baby (r = -.015 and p-value of .807), child ill-health results from exclusive breastfeeding (r -.090 and p-value .153), complementary feeding is more nutritious than breast milk (r -.050 and p-value .431), and continuous breastfeeding causes breast sagging (r -.025 and p-value .688).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong><br>A significant relationship exists between predisposing factors and early child weaning practices among the mothers owing to their level of income, educational status, age, income, and cultural beliefs and practices.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Rapheal Kehinde Falegbe, VE ADAMU Copyright (c) 2023 Rapheal Kehinde Falegbe, VE ADAMU https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/e1001 Sat, 04 Mar 2023 21:32:14 +0000 HIV/AIDS in Tanzania: History, national response, and challenges https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/e1002 <p>Tanzania, alongside 34 other countries, accounts for more than 90% of the people acquiring new HIV infections globally. Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, the country has put forward a response that is intended to reduce its incidence and improve quality of life for sufferers. The country has also now keyed into the UNAIDS 90-90-90 fast-track targets to achieve the global target of ending HIV/AIDS as a public health threat by 2030. This review aimed to discuss HIV/AIDS in Tanzania, detailing the historical events, the national response, the challenges in addressing the epidemic, and the factors related to national response sustainability. We searched valid academic sources for information on the areas covered by our study scope and found some strategic literature, which we reviewed. The first HIV/AIDS patients in Tanzania were seen in October 1983 at Bukoba Regional Hospital in the Kagera Region, located in the North-Western part of the country. To combat the HIV/AIDS menace, Tanzania evolved a national response to the scourge to protect the public’s health. The governance of the HIV/AIDS national response system is vested in the division of National Response in the Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS). This formation co-ordinates the multi-sectoral implementation of HIV/AIDS interventions in the country. The sectoral response is co-ordinated through the public and private sectors, civil society organisations, regions, local government authorities, and the community. Tanzania has adopted the WHO 2015 guidelines for treating all people living with HIV (PLHIV) irrespective of disease stage. However, the Tanzanian national response to the HIV/AIDS scourge in the country is fraught with challenges that border on certain cultural, societal, structural, and political realities and value systems. Surmounting these challenges would require concerted efforts of relevant stakeholders directed at the root causes, especially the challenges that concern financing and the health workforce. Thus, sustainability will depend on continued political leadership and adequate funding.</p> Ndenengo-Grace Lekey-Kawo, VE Adamu Copyright (c) 2023 Ndenengo-Grace Lekey-Kawo, VE Adamu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/e1002 Thu, 09 Mar 2023 17:18:33 +0000 Factors leading to noise-induced hearing loss among workers in spinning mills in Salem District, Tamil Nadu, India https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/e1003 <p><strong>Introduction</strong><br>Hearing loss has become a common feature above 40 years of age. It is more common in Industrial workers who are constantly exposed to loud sounds. With the number of industries rising daily, noise-induced hearing loss has become a constant threat to industrial workers. Salem is one of the districts with lots of spinning mills. <br><strong>Purpose</strong><br>This study was done to detect the factors leading to noise-induced hearing loss among workers in spinning mills in Salem District, Tamil Nadu, India.<br><strong>Methods</strong><br>Questionnaires containing questions on socio-demographic and work-related data were administered to 867 workers in spinning mills in Salem District. An Otolaryngologist screened their aural canal for wax, foreign bodies (which were removed if they persisted), and perforation in the tympanic membrane. Tuning fork tests and assessment of hearing by portable audiometry were done. The workplace’s noise level was measured with a mini sound level meter (model-METRAVI SL – 4010). Data analysis was done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).<br><strong>Results</strong><br>This study indicated that increased duration of work and Increased noise level in the workplaces, working more than ten years in a noisy environment, working more than 6 days a week, and working more than 8 hours a day were the factors associated with noise-induced hearing loss.<br><strong>Conclusions</strong><br>Noise Induced hearing loss is very common in workers working in mills. Adopting the protective measures provided and having regular hearing assessments to prevent hearing loss is indicated.</p> Prasan Norman, E. Karthikeyan, D. Thirunaaukarasu , J. Bavithra Copyright (c) 2023 Prasan Norman, E. Karthikeyan, D. Thirunaaukarasu , J. Bavithra https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/e1003 Fri, 05 May 2023 17:24:22 +0000 Sleep deprivation and its association with depression in first-year medical and dental students in Kanchipuram District, Tamil Nadu, India https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/e1004 <p><strong>Introduction</strong><br>Sleep deprivation is a major problem for college students. A single sleepless night can make one irritable and moody the following day, it is not surprising that chronic sleep deprivation may lead to long-term mood disorders like depression. Medical and dental students are exposed to tremendous levels of pressure due to academic demands which could ultimately potentiate sleep deprivation.<br><strong>Purpose</strong><br>The objective of this study is to grade the level of sleep deprivation in first-year medical and dental students, to grade the level of depression in first-year medical and dental students, and to assess the relationship between sleep deprivation and depression.<br><strong>Methods</strong><br>168 students participated in this study. They were briefed about the study. Two questionnaires were used for the study. The questionnaires used were the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (to assess sleep deprivation) and Beck’s Depression Inventory (to assess depression). Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software was used for statistical analysis.<br><strong>Results</strong><br>72% of the participants suffered from moderate sleep deprivation and 26% suffered from borderline clinical depression. As sleep deprivation increased in the participants, their depression also increased. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the depression score and the sleeping score (p&lt;0.05). However, there was no association between gender and depression (p&gt;0.05). <br><strong>Conclusion</strong><br>Policy efforts should be directed toward primary and secondary prevention programs that enforce sleep education interventions, particularly among first-year college students. interventions need to be youth-friendly, acceptable, feasible, and non-stigmatizing.</p> Prasan Norman, E. Karthikeyan, D. Thirunaaukarasu, S. Hafeez Copyright (c) 2023 Prasan Norman, E. Karthikeyan, D. Thirunaaukarasu, S. Hafeez https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/e1004 Fri, 05 May 2023 17:57:28 +0000 Phytochemical characterization of some herbal concoctions made and sold in Lesotho that are claimed to treat COVID-19 and related respiratory ailments https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/e1006 <p><strong>Introduction</strong><br>Safety and efficacy of herbal products is a major health concern in countries with poor or no regulation regarding the ingredients, dosages, side effects, and contraindications of these traditional medicines. Herein we report the phytochemical characterization of some commercially available plant-derived concoctions in Lesotho, providing a possible scientific basis for the function and possible safety of such concoctions, based on the determined chemical compounds with the aid of documented phytochemical studies on medicinal plants. <br><strong>Purpose</strong><br>The purpose of this study was to use the documented phytochemical studies of medicinal plants in Lesotho and other parts of the world as a basis to study and characterize the commercially available traditional and herbal remedies that are claimed to fight respiratory ailments including those related to COVID-19 infection in Lesotho – Southern Africa. <br><strong>Methods</strong> <br>Phytochemical screening was carried out on three herbal concoctions produced and sold in Lesotho using simple wet chemistry procedures. Solvent microextraction was carried out followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry for the purpose of qualitative analysis of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs). <br><strong>Results</strong><br>At least 5 major phytochemicals in each concoction were obtained with tannins and flavonoids quantified spectrophotometrically. One concoction (ROCK) had a total tannin content of about 75 µg/mL and a total flavonoid content of 300 µg/mL relative to the other plants averaging 20 and 50 µg/mL respectively. GC-MS analyses of the concoctions revealed the varying degrees of presence of VOCs with one showing hardly any peaks on the chromatogram indicating that either the concoction was not made from plants, or the VOCs had almost completely been lost during the processes of preparation. The other compounds detected, namely, benzoic acid (48% in ROCK), phthalic acid ester (detected in all concoctions), and glycerine, are consequent on processing indicating the importance of processing in the safety of processed plants as some of these are hazardous beyond certain thresholds.<br><strong>Conclusions</strong> <br>The tested products show variable amounts of phytochemicals with ROCK showing more volatiles than the other two products. The detected phytochemicals indicate that the products are indeed plant derived while the VOCs profile indicates difference in treatment. The detection of phthalates suggests the importance of testing these products for the presence of unwanted chemicals.</p> Reitumetse Khoabane, Msizi I Mhlongo, Mosotho J. George Copyright (c) 2023 Mosotho J. George, Reitumetse Khoabane, Msizi Mhlongo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/e1006 Sat, 09 Sep 2023 17:45:34 +0000 Reducing the risks of nuclear war - the role of health professionals https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/e1005 <p>Any use of nuclear weapons would be catastrophic for humanity. Even a “limited” nuclear war involving only 250 of the 13 000 nuclear weapons in the world could kill 120 million people outright and cause global climate disruption leading to a nuclear famine, putting 2 billion people at risk. We now call on health professional associations to inform their members worldwide about the threat to human survival and to join with the IPPNW to support efforts to reduce the near-term risks of nuclear war.</p> Kamran Abbasi, Parveen Ali, Virginia Barbour, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, Marcel GM Olde Rikkert, Andy Hanines, Ira Helfand, Richard Horton, Bob Marsh, Arun Mitra, Carlos Monteiro, Elena N. Naumova, Eric J. Rubin, Tilman Ruff, Peush Sahni, James Tumwine, Paul Yonga, Chris Zielinski Copyright (c) 2023 Kamran Abbasi, Parveen Ali, Virginia Barbour, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, Marcel GM Olde Rikkert, Andy Hanines, Ira Helfand, Richard Horton, Bob Marsh, Arun Mitra, Carlos Monteiro, Elena N. Naumova, Eric J. Rubin, Tilman Ruff, Peush Sahni, James Tumwine, Paul Yonga, Chris Zielinski https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/e1005 Fri, 11 Aug 2023 17:59:18 +0000