Orapuh Journal | Journal of Oral & Public Health
Periodontal health and human oral protozoa in parts of Enugu State, Nigeria
Orap J Vol 1 Issue 1 2020


Entamoeba gingivalis, Trichomonas tenax, human oral protozoa, periodontal health, mixed infection, oral microbiota

How to Cite

Adamu, V. E., Eneojo, N. I. F., Amaechi, A. A., Nwoke, B. E. B., Ajaero, C. M. U., & Ukaga, C. N. (2020). Periodontal health and human oral protozoa in parts of Enugu State, Nigeria. Orapuh Journal, 1(1), e701. Retrieved from https://www.orapuh.org/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-4/index.php/orapj/article/view/8



Periodontal disease, like dental caries and some forms of halitosis, is initiated by microbial activity in the oral cavity. It is well known that the presence of protozoa may be established both in persons with pathological alterations in the oral cavity and in those with no such symptoms.

This study was carried out to assess the relationship between periodontal health status and infection with human oral protozoan parasites in Ogbeke-Nike Community of Enugu State, Nigeria.

Materials and methods
The study design adopted for this research work was cross-sectional survey. A total of 233 participants were selected, using the convenience non-probability sampling technique, from 6 rural villages in Ogbeke-Nike community in Enugu-East LGA of Enugu State and were studied, using questionnaires, clinical assessments and parasitological techniques.

Analyses of data from the study revealed that participants who had gingivitis yielded a higher prevalence of human oral protozoan parasites (57.58%), E. gingivalis (24.24%), T. tenax (9.09%) and the mixed infections (24.24%) than participants with healthy periodontium (31.09%, 14.51%, 7.25%, 9.33%, respectively) or periodontitis (14.29%, 14.29%, 0.00%, 0.00%, respectively). These results suggested that the prevalence of human oral protozoan parasites was related to periodontal health status of participants. This relationship was statistically significant (p<0.05).

Human oral protozoan parasites infection is a reality in the study population. Strict attendance to daily oral hygiene and seeking professional help with incipient periodontal problems may help control the prevalence of the study organisms in the oral cavity of humans.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.